County Lives: C. Wales and Scotland – Caernarvonshire to Cromarty

map of Caernarvonshire showing historic county area
Caernarvonshire

From the north coast of Scotland to the west coast of Wales, these County Lives encompass Caernarvonshire, Cardiganshire, and Carmarthenshire; Caithness, Clackmannan,  and Cromarty.

Caernarvonshire on John Speed’s 1610 map is covered in the ‘molehills’ indicating height, as being “altogether mountainous”; “these mountains”, Speed says, “may not unfitly be termed the British Alps”. The later literature of the county makes a feature of them too: Caernarvonshire: a sketch of its history, antiquities, mountains and productions. Intended as a pocket companion to those who make the tour of that county (1792) and: A Guide to the beauties of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire: comprehending particular notices of Beaumaris, Carnarvon, Conway, Snowdon, the Menai Suspension Bridge, Bangor, and every interesting place or object deserving the attention of the tourist (c. 1830). The Early Tourists in Wales site gives hundreds of detailed accounts of Snowdon, including a section of advice from this Guide, and Rev. Nicholas Owen’s night-time ascent.

map of Cardiganshire showing historic county

Tudor Cardiganshire appears to be dominated by towering Plinillimon Hill, possibly the least popular mountain in Wales from the evidence of tourist guides such as The Cambrian Directory (1800). Speed also includes “the due forme of the Shiretown”- a neat plan of Cardigan – but nothing for Aberystwyth, despite the town’s importance. Special Collections holds many later works about – and many published in – Aberystwyth, including Thomas Owen Morgan’s New guide to Aberystwyth and its environs; comprising notices, historical and descriptive, of the principal objects of interest in the town and neighbourhood (Aberystwyth, 1858) and the broader Cardiganshire: a personal survey of some of its antiquities… (Aberystwyth, 1903) by Liverpool University alumnus George Eyre Evans (1857-1939), who held major roles in Aberystwyth University, the National Library of Wales, and the antiquarian, or local history, societies of both Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire.

map of Carmarthenshire showing historic county area

Speed describes Carmarthenshire as “not altogether so pestered with hills as her bordering neighbours are”, and “for victuals … very well stored”. Perhaps the less challenging terrain made time for gentler pursuits such as the poetry of Speed’s contemporary Rhys Prichard (1579-1644). Canwyll y Cymru. The Welshman’s candle, or the divine poems of Mr. Rees Prichard, sometime Vicar of Landovery in Carmarthenshire was translated into English verse by the Rev. William Evans, Vicar of Lanhaden (1771) who may not to be the William Evans whose dictionary was published in the same year: A new English-Welsh dictionary: containing all words necessary for reading an English author; wherein not only the corresponding British is given to the English, … but also every English word is accented to prevent a bad pronunciation (1771)

map of Caithness showing historic county area

The Scottish book collector John Fraser (1836-1902) came from Wick, and collection reflects his Caithness origins:

Edinburgh Caithness Association, Six songs, composed for the annual dinner of the Edinburgh Caithness Association, 22nd January 1841. By a member of the Committee (1841); Some present-day songs and singers of Caithness (Wick,1899); James Traill Calder (1784-1864), Sketch of the civil and traditional history of Caithness from the tenth century (Wick, 1887); Richard Pococke (1704-1765), The tour of Dr Richard Pococke, Lord Bishop of Ossory, through Sutherland and Caithness in 1760 (Edinburgh: Sutherland Association, 1888).

Richard Pococke was an intrepid traveller and pioneer mountaineer; like his Scottish travels, reaching as far as Orkney, most of his accounts were not published in his lifetime, with the exception of A Description of the East and some other countries (1743-45). His observations were more astute than the title suggests.

map of Clackmannanshire showing historic county area

Clackmannanshire, ‘the wee county’ is the Scottish equivalent of Rutland. Clackmannan, the county town, ceded that role to Alloa in 1822 as the port silted up, leaving Clackmannan now more than a mile inland. The General Views series of agricultural reports for the county seems to have found it too little, and extended into the neighbouring counties: General view of the agriculture of the county of Clackmannan; and some of the adjacent parishes, situated in the counties of Perth and Stirling (1795).

map of Cromartyshire showing historic county area

Cromarty, similarly, was covered together with Ross in the General view of the agriculture of the counties of Ross and Cromarty By Sir G.S. Mackenzie, Bart (1813: SPEC Y81.3.526). Cromarty, the county town, remained coastal and the name is familiar worldwide as an area in the shipping forecast. Cromarty was also the birthplace of Hugh Miller (1802-1856), geologist; some of the fossil fishes he excavated from the local sandstone are named after him. His account of growing up in Cromarty, My schools and schoolmasters, 1852 onwards contains detailed descriptions of the area and contributed to his popularization of geology.

Special Collections copies of works cited:

Caernarvonshire

  • Caernarvonshire: a sketch of its history, antiquities, mountains and productions (1792: SPEC Y79.2.5)
  • A Guide to the beauties of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire: comprehending particular notices of Beaumaris, Carnarvon, Conway, Snowdon, the Menai Suspension Bridge, Bangor, and every interesting place or object deserving the attention of the tourist (Macclesfield, approximately 1830: SPEC Y83.3.665/4)
  • The Cambrian directory; or, Cursory sketches of the Welsh territories. With a chart, comprehending at one view, the advisable route, best inns, distances, and objects most worthy of attention (1800: SPEC L4.63)

 Cardiganshire

  • Thomas Owen Morgan (1799-1878), New guide to Aberystwyth and its environs; comprising notices, historical and descriptive, of the principal objects of interest in the town and neighbourhood (1858: SPEC Y85.3.111)
  • George Eyre Evans (1857-1939), Cardiganshire: a personal survey of some of its antiquities, chapels, churches, fonts, plate, and registers (Aberystwyth : Welsh Gazette, 1903: SPEC Y90.3.320)

Carmarthenshire

  • Rhys Prichard (1579-1644). Canwyll y Cymru. The Welshman’s candle, or the divine poems of Mr. Rees Prichard … now first translated into English verse (Carmarthen: Printed for the translator by J. Ross, 1771: SPEC Y77.3.530)
  • William Evans, A new English-Welsh dictionary (1771: SPEC Y77.3.205)

Caithness

  • Edinburgh Caithness Association, Six songs, composed for the annual dinner of the Edinburgh Caithness Association, 22nd January 1841 By a member of the Committee (Edinburgh, 1841: SPEC Fraser 726)
  • Some present-day songs and singers of Caithness (Wick: W. Rae, 1899: SPEC Fraser 1676).
  • James Traill Calder (1784-1864), Sketch of the civil and traditional history of Caithness from the tenth century (Wick: Rae, 1887: SPEC Fraser 757)
  • Richard Pococke (1704-1765), The tour of Dr Richard Pococke, Lord Bishop of Ossory, through Sutherland and Caithness in 1760; with introduction and notes by D.W. Kemp (Edinburgh: Sutherland Association, 1888: SPEC Fraser 1698)

Clackmannan

  • General view of the agriculture of the county of Clackmannan; and some of the adjacent parishes, situated in the counties of Perth and Stirling. By John Francis Erskine (1795: SPEC Y79.3.717)
  • John Sinclair (1754-1835), The new statistical account of Scotland, by ministers of the respective parishes, under the superintendence of a committee of the Society for the Benefit of the Sons and Daughters of the Clergy (1845: SPEC Y84.3.597)

Cromarty

  • General view of the agriculture of the counties of Ross and Cromarty. By Sir G.S. Mackenzie, Bart (1813: SPEC Y81.3.526)
  • Hugh Miller, My schools and schoolmasters (undated) JUV.A925

Map of Caernarfonshire from Wikishire.co.uk CC-BY-SA

County Lives: C (1) England & Ireland – Cambridgeshire to Connaught

Map of the counties in the historic province of Connaught (Wikishire.co.uk CC-BY-SA)

Stretching from Cumberland to the Channel Isles, and from Cambridgeshire to Cornwall via Cheshire, this collection of County Lives includes Connaught (Connacht), the first of the four historic provinces of Ireland, encompassing the counties of Clare, Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, and Sligo.

map of Cambridgeshire showing the historic county area

John Speed’s map of Cambridgeshire has a blank shield in its border of the arms of colleges of Cambridge University: Emmanuel (1584) is there, but not Sidney Sussex (1594), although the map itself is dated 1610. A sign of the Theatre’s long publication process. A very different map of the county in the first (quarto) series of the General Views of the Board of Agriculture (1794) was one of few praised by William Marshall in his Review and abstractsof the series (1808-1817). Marshall commended the Land use and soil map “not merely of Cambridgeshire but properly including the Fen Lands of the counties of Northampton, Huntingdon, Norfolk and Suffolk”. The fen-lands are picturesquely depicted in Robert Farren’s etchings of The fen-lands of Cambridgeshire(1883) owned by private press book collector William Noble. The New Cambridge guide (1815) offers a more exhaustive, not to say exhausting, approach: A view of the University, town, & county of Cambridge: containing correct & comprehensive descriptions of the public buildings, colleges, churches, curiosities, &c. &c. &c. A concise account of the different orders, degrees, ceremonies, and offices in the University; a list of the present University officers; and a variety of new and interesting matter.

Speed’s Channel Isles are part of a map divided into four: Holy Island and the Farne Islands off the coast of Northumberland to the left, leaving space on the right for ‘Garnsey’ (plus Sark, Herm and Iethou) and ‘Jarsey’, but omitting altogether Alderney and Burhou. He nevertheless describes the whole as “delightsome and healthful”. The language, which Speed calls, “French, though after a corrupt manner” retained sufficient identity into the 20th century to be collected for the library of the Gypsy Lore SocietyFolksongs of Great Britain and Ireland: a guidebook to the living tradition of folksinging in the British Isles and Ireland, containing 360 folksongs from field recordings sung in English, Lowland Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, Channel Islands French, Romany and Tinkers’ cants, etc.(1975).

map of Cheshire showing historic county area

Cheshire is described by Speed as “wholesome for life”, although he admits it can be cold, and that he might be biased, as a Cheshire native, by “affection to my natural producer”. Special Collections shows a similar bias in the quantity of Cheshire items it holds, especially in the collection of Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, a former President of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire and Warrington worthy. Rylands’s books on Cheshire include Egerton Leigh’s opinionated Glossary of words used in the dialect of Cheshire (1877), for example:

Papers read to the Historic Society, such as James Kendrick’s Warrington local sketches and Charles Potter’s Observations on the geology and archaeology of the Cheshire shore (1876) can be read now in the digitized Transactions of the Historic Society. And Cheshire historians can also turn to The history of the county palatine and city of Chester (1819) by George Ormerod (1785-1873), based on more than a decade’s work, and reckoned to be the best of the county histories.

Another Cheshire collector, Robert George Morton, could see the “Cheshire shore” from his house in West Kirby, but would have missed the 1936 school trip to the Mersey side of the Wirral: New Brighton, Wallasey, Cheshire: seaside, countryside, industry, shipping: a visit by boys of the Wordsworth Senior School, Stoke Newington, June 12th-June 26th, 1936. Local schoolchildren leaving their mark on the Children’s books include Miss Rowlinson, of Laburnham School in Lymm, with her school prize copy of Stories for little readers (1849), and the probably not so prize-winning Chas. Lloyd, who inscribed his geography textbook, “Heswall, Cheshier”.

map of Cornwall showing historic county area

Tudor Cornwall was one of the most heavily industrialized counties, and still had native Cornish speakers, but probably not the sea monsters depicted on Speed’s map in “her environing seas”. The county’s mining history depended on its rich geology, as explained in Thomas Hogg’s Manual of mineralogy, in which is shown how much Cornwall contributed to the illustration of the science (1828). Rylands’s collection has Cornish history too, pre-dating even Roman Chester, including Antiquities, historical and monumental, of the county of Cornwall. Consisting of several essays on the first inhabitants, druid-superstition, customs, and remains of the most remote antiquity in Britain, and the British isles, exemplified and proved by monuments now extant in Cornwall and the Scilly Islands, with a vocabulary of the Cornu-British language (1769). Written by William Borlase, Rector of Lugdvan, near Penzance, it is particularly good on Druids.

map of Cumberland showing historic county area

John Speed’s Cumberland map describes the ‘Picts Wall’ as “the uttermost Limits of the Romane Empyre”; no doubt the Roman legions would have agreed with his comments on the county’s chilliness. The tourist hordes swarming to Hadrian’s Wall in the 19th century had a growing range of guidebooks, such as Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire (Kendal, 1821) and the Handbook for Westmorland, Cumberland and the Lakes in John Murray’s series (1869). ‘Hasty pudding’ may not have been their breakfast of choice, despite the enthusiastic comments Arthur Young (1741-1820) made in the margin of his copy of the General View of the agriculture of the county of Cumberland:

It would not be possible to devise a breakfast for a labouring man more palatable, wholesome, invigorating or more easily prepared than hasty pudding made of oatmeal ate along with skim’d milk which obtains universally in the northern counties.

No tourists would be drawn to the western Irish province of Connaught by Speed’s description of the air as “not altogether so pure and clear as in the other provinces of Ireland” on account of the bogs, “both dangerous and full of vaporous and foggy mists”. A detailed 17th-century account of Connaught by Roderic O’Flaherty was published in 1846 as A chorographical description of West or H-Iar Connaught, edited by James Hardiman, who took a dim view of the place. He hoped that the publication might, by making the area better known, “eventually lead to the moral and social improvement of its population” and show what might be written about other places when “even so much could be elicited from so unpromising a locality as H-Iar Connaught”. Or you could read Eneas MacDonnell’s cheerier Speech delivered … at a meeting of the inhabitants of Mayo, held, July 16th, 1826: wherein the ancient fame of Ireland, and her liberal contributions to the diffusion of religion, science and civilization throughout Great Britain and other nations, are, in part, illustrated.

Special Collections copies of works cited:

Cambridgeshire

  • Robert Farren,The fen-lands of Cambridgeshire drawn and etched by R. Farren (Cambridge, 1883: SPEC Noble D.01.02/oversize)
  • The New Cambridge guide (Cambridge, 1815: SPEC Y81.2.9)

Channel Isles

  • Peter Kennedy (editor), assisted by Allison Whyte; musical transcriptions and guitar chords by Raymond Parfrey, Folksongs of Great Britain and Ireland: a guidebook to the living tradition of folksinging in the British Isles and Ireland, containing 360 folksongs from field recordings sung in English, Lowland Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, Channel Islands French, Romany and Tinkers’ cants, etc (1975: SPEC Scott Macfie F.1.31)

Cheshire

  • Egerton Leigh (1815-1876), A glossary of words used in the dialect of Cheshire founded on a similar attempt by Roger Wilbraham contributed to the Society of Antiquaries in 1817 (1877: SPEC Ryl.B.3.19)
  • George Ormerod (1785-1873), The history of the county palatine and city of Chester (1819: SPEC Ryl.B.1.5)
  • New Brighton, Wallasey, Cheshire: seaside, countryside, industry, shipping: a visit by boys of the Wordsworth Senior School, Stoke Newington, June 12th-June 26th, 1936 (Ilford: Gregg School, 1936: CHILDREN BVII:47.1)
  • Stories for little readers: I. The sister; II. A lion in the way; III. The whip-poor-will, &c. &c. (1849: JUV.A981)
  • Edward George Hodgkinson, Preliminary geography (1913:  JUV.1473)

Cornwall

  • William Borlase, Antiquities, historical and monumental, of the county of Cornwall … with a vocabulary of the Cornu-British (1769: SPEC Ryl.B.1.20/oversize)
  • Thomas Hogg (1777-1835), A manual of mineralogy, in which is shown how much Cornwall contributed to the illustration of the science (1828: SPEC Y82.3.216)

Cumberland

  • Thomas West, A guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire (Kendal, 1821: SPEC Y82.3.124)
  • John Murray (Firm), Handbook for Westmorland, Cumberland and the Lakes (1869: SPEC Y86.3.36)

Connaught

County Lives: B (2) Scotland – Banff, Berwick, Bute

map of Berwickshire showing historic county area

John Speed’s single map of Scotland, belatedly included in his project after the Union of Crowns in 1603, leaves little room for detailed depictions or descriptions, and it is divided not into counties but according to the territories of the ancient clans and families. So The Marches occupy Berwickshire’s border with England, Banff is part Buquhan, part Athole, and tiny Bute, with room only for its castle at Rothesay, is shown alongside Kyle.

map of Banffshire showing historic county area

Many later endeavours make up for Speed’s lack of detail: Banff fell into the remit of the Aberdeen-based Spalding Club (1839 – 1869) “established for the publication of the historical, genealogical, topographical and literary remains of the North-eastern counties of Scotland” and was included in Joseph Robertson’s 4-volume Illustrations of the topography and antiquities of the shires of Aberdeen and Banff (1847-1869)

An earlier account of the county is given in the General view of the agriculture of the county of Banff, with observations on the means of its improvement By James Donaldson, factor for the Honourable William Ramsay Maule of Panmure. Drawn up for the consideration of the Board of Agriculture and Internal Improvement. (1794). This was part of a national project running from 1793 to 1822 producing surveys of the agriculture of each county intended to encourage improvements in farming. Berwick was covered by Alexander Lowe, General view of the agriculture of the county of Berwick, with observations on the means of its improvement (1794). Digital copies are available via the Hathi Trust. The Britain-wide project was led by the president of the Board of Agriculture, Sir John Sinclair (1754-1835). It was modelled on his earlier Enlightenment project to gather information parish-by-parish – all 936 of them – to create The Statistical account of Scotland (21 volumes, 1791-1799), designed by to gather “statistics” which would show “the quantum of happiness in a population”. The University of Edinburgh’s Statistical Accounts of Scotland online resource can provide hours of happy browsing.

Berwickshire’s less bucolic history is described by Berwickshire resident, George Ridpath (1716-1772), in his history of the borders up to the Tudor period, a work edited and published in 1776 by his brother Philip as, The border-history of England and Scotland, from the earliest times to the union of he two crowns. Border wars erupted again during the English Civil War, despite a short-lived truce with Scotland (1639) known as the pacification of Berwick: His Majesties declaration, concerning his proceedings with his subjects of Scotland, since the pacification in the camp neere Berwick (1640).

map of Buteshire showing historic county area

There are storms of a different kind in the work of James Kay, a 19th-century resident of Bute, and the author of The meteorology of Rothesay, Island of Bute, for the year 1889: being an abstract of observations made at Barone Cottage, Rothesay (Rothesay: Harvey & Co., printers, 1890).

Special Collections classmarks:

Banff

  • Joseph Robertson (1810-1866) Illustrations of the topography and antiquities of the shires of Aberdeen and Banff (4 volumes, 1847-1869: SPEC Ryl.U.6.20-23)
  • James Donaldson, General view of the agriculture of the county of Banff, with observations on the means of its improvement By James Donaldson, factor for the Honourable William Ramsay Maule of Panmure. Drawn up for the consideration of the Board of Agriculture and Internal Improvement (1794: SPEC Y79.3.290.5)

Berwick

  • Alexander Lowe, General view of the agriculture of the county of Berwick, with observations on the means of its improvement (1794: SPEC Y79.3.290.5)
  • George Ridpath (1716?-1772) The border-history of England and Scotland, from the earliest times to the union of the two crowns (Printed by Henry Richardson, Berwick. 1810: SPEC Y81.5.13)
  • Charles I (1600-1649), His Majesties declaration, concerning his proceedings with his subjects of Scotland, since the pacification in the camp neere Berwick (London: Printed by R. Young, His Majesties printer for Scotland, and R. Badger, printer to the prince His Highnesse, M.DC.XL.[1640]: SPEC Knowsley pamphlet 443.1)

Bute

  • James Kay, The meteorology of Rothesay, Island of Bute, for the year 1889: being an abstract of observations made at Barone Cottage, Rothesay (Rothesay: Harvey & Co., printers, 1890: SPEC P.2.18(12)/A)

Statistical account of Scotland (21 volumes, 1791-1799: SPEC Y79.3.1049 – 1069)

General views (quarto series, 1794-1798: SPEC Y79.3.290-291; octavo series, 1805-1814: SPEC Y81.3.511-529).

County Lives: B (England & Wales) – Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Breconshire

map of Bedfordshire, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire showing historic county area

Bedfordshire, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire all feature the first volume of the brothers Daniel and Samuel Lysons’ Magna Britannia – described, at 900-odd pages, as “a concise topographical account of the several counties of Great Britain” (1806). Their work was based on personal visits to collect material (their friend Horace Walpole paid tribute to “the two Lysons, and their strong legs and activity and perseverance”) supplemented by material gathered by circulating printed questionnaires. The post office helped out by allowing replies by clergymen to be sent free of charge. The project got as far as Devonshire (volume 6) before Samuel’s death in 1819.

John Speed’s map of Bedfordshire is elegantly simple, with an inset plan of Tudor Bedford. 18th century Bedfordshire is briefly described by Resta Patching, in Four topographical letters, written in July 1755, upon a journey thro’ Bedfordshire … &c. From a gentleman of London, to his brother and sister in town: giving a Description of the Country thro’ which he pass’d; with observations on every Thing that occurred to him, either Curious or Remarkable (1757). The promise (or threat) of the title is borne out by the minutiae of Patching’s somewhat grumpy descriptions. It is not surprising that this seems to have been his only publication.

Speed’s Berkshire is dominated by Windsor Castle, which occupies the top third of the map, displacing a plan of Tudor Reading to the map of Buckinghamshire. The later antiquarian Elias Ashmole gives a solid account of the county in The antiquities of Berkshire. With a large appendix of many valuable original papers, pedigrees of the most considerable families in the said county, and a particular account of the castle, college, and town of Windsor (1719), but there are also more light-hearted accounts. The literary annuals collection includes Heath’s picturesque annual for 1840: Windsor Castle, and its environs, by Leitch Ritchie; with fifteen engravings by the first artists, after original drawings

Children’s books on Berkshire include The scouring of the white horse; or, The long vacation ramble of a London clerk by the author of ‘Tom Brown’s schooldays’ with illustrations by Richard Doyle (1859). The white horse of the title is at Uffington, where the author, Thomas Hughes, was born, and both novels include folklore and local history of rural Berkshire. A Victorian verse chapbook includes ‘The Berkshire lady’s garland’ (1840?), which can be read in the National Library of Scotland’s chapbook database.

Speed describes Buckinghamshire as having “an infinite number’ of sheep”, though none are depicted on his plan of Buckingham. For residents keen on toponomastics, the collection of Robert George Morton includes The place-names of Buckinghamshire (1925) –  the first volume in The English Place-Name Society’s (non-alphabetical) survey by county. The series reached volume 91, Leicestershire, in 2016.

The famous concrete cows would be quite at home in the rural Buckinghamshire landscapes in two books which long pre-date Milton Keynes: A Description of the gardens of Lord Viscount Cobham, at Stow in Buckinghamshire “sold by B. Seeley, in Buckingham, and George Norris, in Newport-Pagnell”,  the first walking guide-book to an English garden (1744), and James Storer’s The rural walks of Cowper; displayed in a series of views near Olney, Bucks: representing the scenery exemplified in his poems; with descriptive sketches, and a memoir of the poet’s life (1822).

map of Brecknockshire showing historic county area

Last but not least, Brecknockshire, or John Speed’s “Breknoke, both shyre and towne described” is “full of hills and uneven for travel”, especially in the neighbourhood of towering Momuchdenye Hill (Pen y fan). A reliable later guide is A history of the County of Brecknock by Theophilus Jones, printed and published in Brecknock (1805-1809). Jones’s work is described as ‘the best of our Welsh county histories’ by the Dictionary of Welsh Biography which also reproduces a cheerful and kindly portrait of Jones from the National Library of Wales. And a once locally-owned book is David Thomas’s 18th century copy of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s British history, translated into English from the Latin, with his inscription, “Brecon, 1857”.

Special Collections copies of works cited:

Bedfordshire

  • Resta Patching, Four topographical letters (1757): SPEC L14.33

Berkshire

  • Elias Ashmole, The antiquities of Berkshire. With a large appendix of many valuable original papers, pedigrees of the most considerable families in the said county, and a particular account of the castle, college, and town of Windsor (1719): SPEC R.20.14/A)
  • Windsor Castle, and its environs by Leitch Ritchie; with fifteen engravings by the first artists, after original drawings (1840): SPEC Annuals 1b.H445
  • Thomas Hughes, The scouring of the white horse (1859): OLDHAM 463
  • ‘The Berkshire lady’s garland’ (1840?) SPEC Y85.3.208.18

Buckinghamshire

  • The place-names of Buckinghamshire (1925): SPEC Morton 162
  • A Description of the gardens of Lord Viscount Cobham, at Stow in Buckinghamshire. (1744): SPEC Knowsley pamphlet 215
  • James Storer, The rural walks of Cowper (1822): SPEC Y82.3.735

Bedfordshire, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire

  • Daniel and Samuel Lysons, Magna Britannia (1806): SPEC Y80.5.28)

Brecknockshire (or Breconshire)

  • Theophilus Jones, A history of the County of Brecknock (1805-1809): SPEC Y80.5.39
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth, British history (1718): SPEC J35.33

Maps from wikishire.co.uk CC-BY-SA